a.k.a. Eric's Pathology Links

Table of Contents

  1. Surgical Pathology (general)
  2. Subspecialty Surgical Pathology      
  3. Cytopathology
  4. Autopsy

  1. Histology
  2. Anatomy & Physiology
  3. Microscopes and Microscopy

  1. History of Pathology
  2. Other Pathology Resources
  3. Bioinformatics
  4. Internet Research

What is Pathology?

  1. Pathology (sometimes called laboratory medicine) is a medical specialty whose practitioners:
  1. are physicians, having trained in medical school, residency, and often fellowship
  2. engage primarily in the diagnosis of disease, but also help establish a prognosis and predict which therapy is best for a given patient
  3. do this by examining patient specimens (tissue biopsies, blood or fluid samples, etc.) and whole bodies (autopsy pathology)
  4. (note: pathology is also a more general term meaning "the study of disease")
  1. Important areas of practice within pathology include:
  1. Surgical Pathology: examining biopsies, tissues, and whole organs removed by surgical procedures
  2. Cytopathology: examining mixtures of cells that are rubbed off (eg. pap smears), extracted (eg. fine needle aspiration), or naturally shed (eg. cerebrospinal fluid) from patients
  3. Autopsy Pathology: establishing the cause of death through examination of all body systems
  4. Forensic Pathology: establishing a cause of death through autopsy for legal purposes (eg. investigating suspicious deaths)
  5. Neuropathology: any of the 4 above areas applied to neurological specimens (brains, spinal cords, peripheral nerves)
  6. Anatomical Pathology: a more general term that includes the 5 specialties above and which refers to diagnosis by "anatomical" (ie. anatomy and histology) criteria
  7. Hematopathology: examination of blood smears, bone marrow, and sometimes lymph nodes or splenic tissue to diagnose disease of the hematopoeitic system
  8. Molecular Pathology: diagnosis, prognosis and prediction by molecular (DNA, RNA, protein) criteria, which may be an adjunct to any of the other areas listed here
  9. Chemical Pathology (a.k.a. Clinical Chemistry): biochemical testing of blood or other specimens
  10. Medical Microbiology: diagnosing and guiding treatment of infections through examination and culturing of patient specimens
  1. Most pathologists spend most of their time practicing surgical pathology, cytopathology, and hematopathology, due to relative high workload in these areas. 

Favorite Links

This section is for whatever sites I am currently finding most useful. This will change depending on what my needs are in particular rotations or for particular examinations.

  1. Histology: Histology Learning System, Pathpedia e-Atlas Histology
  2. Atlases: WebPathology, Pathpedia e-Atlas Histopathology, SurgPath4U
  3. IHC: NordIQC epitope descriptions

Anatomical Pathology (general)

 Reference Websites:

  1. Pathology Outlines [comprehensive "online textbook" of pathology]
  2. PathCONSULT (Elsevier) [broad "online textbook" of pathology]
  3. The Knowledge Hub (USCAP) [collected educational materials form past USCAP conferences]
  4. CAP Cancer Reporting Checklists (College of American Pathologists)
  5. University of Virginia Pathology Tutorials [GU, gyne, hemepath, parasitology]
  6. Cancer Management Guidelines (BC Cancer Institute)
  7. eMedicine Pathology Articles [virtual textbook by entity]


  1. "Medical School Pathology" (John Minarcik)
  1. General Pathology Lectures [based on Robbin's first 10 chapters] [Youtube link]
  2. Corresponding "Multiheader" Slide-Based Histopathology Videos
  1. YouTube Pathology Lectures (based on the first 10 chapters of Robbins)
  2. The Basic Medical Pathology Series (NLM, UAB)
  3. The Online Interactive Pathology Laboratory (IPLAB) (UAB) [designed to compliment Robbins textbook]
  4. Basic Pathology Concepts Tutorial (JHU)

Unknown Case Conferences (weekly, monthly):

  1. Surgical Pathology Online Unknown Cases (JHU) [new cases weekly; free registration required]
  2. GI & Liver Pathology Case Conference (JHU) [2-4 new cases per month]
  3. Case of the Week ( [archived cases by category or diagnosis]
  4. Online Case Studies (U Pittsburgh) [new case weekly]
  5. Division of Cytopathology Interesting Case Conference (JHU) [>100 old cases; free registration required]
  6. Cytology Case of the Month ( archived cases
  7. PathMD AP/CP Board Review [monthly exam practice questions; question archive, answer archive, image archive]
  8. Case of the month (College of American Pathologists)
  9. Image of the week (Pathology Network, Lippincott)
  10. Enjoy pathology (U Colorado professor) [case collections in surg path, dermpath, and hemepath]

Pathology Atlases

  1. WebPathology ( [particularly strong in urologic/gynecologic/breast images]
  2. PathPedia e-Atlas ( [histology and histopathology]
  3. SurgPath4U [library of entities by organ site with diagnostic feature walkthroughs]

Virtual Slide Libraries:

  1. USCAP Virtual Slide Box (USCAP) [with virtual microscopy]
  2. Leeds Virtual Slide Library [with virtual microscopy] <--- hint: just select an organ system and click         "search"
  3. Virtual Slidebox of Histopathology (U of Iowa) [virtual slides]
  4. PathXchange ( [community-contributed cases]
  5. Pathology Pics [posted photomicrographs, quick practice cases, question of the day]
  6. Epathologies "Pathology Quizzes" (St Joseph University)
  7. Jaun Rosai's Collection of Surgical Pathology Seminars ( [virtual slides]
  8. Youtube Histopathology (John Minarcik) [video slide walkthroughs by disease]
  1. Adrenal, Appendix, Bone, Bladder, Bone Marrow, Brain, Breast, Cervix, Colon, Esophagus, Eye, Fallopian Tube, Gallbladder, Heart, Joint, Kidney, Liver, Lung, Lymph Node, Mouth, Muscle, Neck, Nose, Ovary, Pancreas, Parathyroid, Penis, Pituitary, Prostate, Salivary Gland, Skin, Small Intestine, Soft Tissue, Spleen, Stomach, Testis, Thymus, Thyroid, Ureter, Uterus, Vagina, Vessels, Vulva

Textbooks for Download:

  1. IARC Publications (International Agency for Research on Cancer); Includes:
  1. WHO Classification of Tumors: Pathology and Genetics of Tumour of the Digestive System
  2. WHO Classification of Tumors: Pathology and Genetics of Tumours of Soft Tissue and Bone
  3. WHO Classification of Tumors: Pathology and Genetics of Tumours of the Skin
  4. WHO Classification of Tumors: Pathology and Genetics of Tumours of the Urinary System and Male Genital Organs
  5. WHO Classification of Tumors: Pathology and Genetics of Head and Neck Tumours
  6. WHO Classification of Tumors: Pathology and Genetics of Tumours of the Lung, Pleura, Thymus, and Heart


  1. Immunohistochemical Vade Mecum (Dr. P Bishop) [IHC stain reference]
  2. NordIQ Epitope Descriptions (not for profit)
  3. Immunohistochemistry FAQ [textbook companion]
  4. [ Stains A-E | Stains F-Z and Cell Cycle | CD Markers ]
  5. Antibody and Beyond (
  6. Immunohistochemistry World (

Subspecialty Surgical Pathology

Bone and Soft Tissue Pathology

  1. Bone Tumors - Tutorial for Residents (UMDNJ) [radiology and pathology, approach, cases, quizzes]

Breast Pathology

  1. Digital Atlas of Breast Pathology (UCHSC)



  1. Dermatopathology Terms Dictionary (DermPathTutor, U of Iowa) [includes some photomicrographs]
  2. Dermatology and Dermatopathology Glossary (UCSF) [with pictures and photomicrographs)
  3. Dermatology Terms Dictionary (U of Rochester) [good diagrams, morphology guide]
  4. DermAtlas [~10,000 dermatology and dermatopathology images]

Electron Microscopy

  1. Electron Microscopy for Pathologists (Virginia Commonwealth University) [mostly kidney and muscle]
  2. Normal Tissue Ultrastructure (University of Delaware)
  3. Normal Cell Ultrastructure (University of Delaware)


Gastrointestinal Pathology

  1. Division of Gastrointestinal and Liver Pathology - Case Conference (JHU)
  2. GI Pathology Tutorials (BU) [15 tutorials, 1300 commented images]
  3. Slide Carousel of GI Pathoogy Course for Medical Students (Pitt) [clinical, gross, micro correlated]
  4. Tulane GI Tutorial (Tulane) [commented photomicrographs]
  5. GI Pathology - An Image-Based CME Module (Upstate) [20 unknown cases]

Genitourinary Pathology

  1. - A visual Survey of Urologic Pathology (Virginia Urology Center)
  2. WHO Classificaion of Urothelial Neoplasms - Tutorial (JHU)
  3. Gleason Grading of Prostatic Carcinoma - Introduction (JHU)
  4. Gleason Grading of Prostatic Carcinoma - Tutorial/Test (JHU)
  5. Male Genital Pathology Tutorial (UVa) [overview with images]

Gynecologic Pathology

  1. Gynecologic Pathology Tutorials (UVa):
    --->Vulva, Vagina, Cervix, Uterus, Tubes, Ovaries, Breast
  2. Digital Atlas of Gynecologic Pathology (UCHSC) [Vulva, Vagina, Cervix, Uterus, Tubes, Ovaries]
  3. Online Multimedia Lectures on Endometrial Pathology (by Dr. George Mutter, Harvard)
  4. Histopathology of the Uterine Cervix - digital atlas (IARC)

Head and Neck Pathology

  1. Atlas of Head and Neck Pathology (Ohio State U Medical Center) [online textbook by disease]


  1. Lymph Node and Spleen Pathology (
  2. HemePath Tutorial (UMDNJ) [solid tissue hematopathology]
  3. Microscopic Hematology Tutorial (UVa) [disorders of RBCs, WBCs, Platelets, etc.]
  4. Atlas of Hematology [great pictures]
  5. The Hematology Virtual Microscope - Interactive Syllabus (UMich)
  6. "Hematography" Case Studies (UofMinn)
  7. Hematopathology Case Studies (SUNY Upstate)
  8. Hematopathology Case Studies - Leukocyte Disorders (SUNY Upstate)

Infectious Disease Pathology

  1. Pathology of Infectious Diseases (Fujita Health University) [comprehensive atlas]
  2. Parasitology Tutorial (UVa)

Liver Pathology

  1. Diagnostic Liver Pathology by Randall Lee [UPMC] (online textbook of liver pathology)

Lung/Chest Pathology

  1. Practical Pathology of Chest Diseases - Case Studies (USCF)

Ophthalmic Pathology

  1. David C. Cogan Ophthalmic Pathology Collection
  2. Ophthalmic Pathology - Interactive Laboratory Guide

Renal Pathology

  1. Renal Pathology Tutorial (UNC) [organized by disease]
  2. UNC Nephropathology Biopsy Cases (UNC) [by case]

Transplant Pathology

  1. Transplant Pathology Internet Services (U Pittsburgh) [by organ]



  1. Cytopathology Atlas (JHU) [by organ system]
  2. General Cytopathology (JHU) [introduction to cytopathology]
  3. Website (warning: commercial site, very "thinprep" oriented) [impressive site; atlases, lectures, tutorials, unknowns]
  4. Cytology Image Archive (Dr. JC Prolla, Brazil)
  5. Urine Sediment Tutorial (SUNY)
  6. Tutorial in Salivary Gland Cytology (Norwegian Association of Clinical Cytology)
  7. Thyroid FNA Atlas (Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology)

Unknown Cases / Case Conferences

  1. Case of the Month (International Academy of Cytology)
  2. Interesting Case Conference - Division of Cytopathology (JHU)
  3. Cytopathology Tutorial (JHU) [unknown case series by organ system]
  4. Case of the Month (Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology)
  5. Lung Cytology and FISH (Basel Institute for Pathology)
  6. Urinary Cytology and FISH (Basel Institute for Pathology)
  7. Case of the Month (Australian Society of Cytology)
  8. Cytosleuth Quiz Cases (BC Cancer Agency)
  9. Case of the Month (New Zealand Society of Cytology)


  1. Cervical Dysplasia Tutorial (SUNY)
  2. Bethesda System Self Test (American Society of Cytopathology)
  3. Bethesday System Atlas (American Society of Cytopathology)
  4. Cytopathology of the Uterine Cervix - Digital Atlas (IARC Screening Group)
  5. Challenges in Cytology Online E-Learning Program (New South Wales Dept of Health)

Fine-Needle Aspiration (Procedure)

  1. FNA Techniques Videos (Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology)
  2. Guidelines from the Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology
  1. FNA Procedure and Reporting
  2. Preparation of Smears
  3. Thyroid FNA
  1. Lymph Node FNA (IARC Screening Group)

Ultrasound-Guided Fine-Needle Aspiration (Procedure)

  1. Ultrasound-Guided FNA

Ancilliary Testing

  1. Flow Cytometry and Fluorescence video tutorials from Invitrogen [warning: corporate source]


Autopsy Pathology

  1. Virtual Autopsy (U of Leicester) [case presentations]
  2. Autopsy Guidelines by Scenario (RCPath)
  3. Cause of Death Statement Tutorial (NAME)
  4. Forensic Medicine for Medical Students [tutorial on a wide variety of topics]
  5. Visible Proofs (National Library of Medicine) [history of forensic medicine]


Gross Pathology

  1. Webpath Gross Pathology Images
  2. Tulane Gross Pathology Images



  1. Paleopathology Cases (VCU)
  2. Paleopathology (U Utah)


Forensic Anthropology

  1. 3D Osteology (U Wyoming) [all bones separately, good pictures]
  2. Forensic Anthropology (U Utah) [introduction]
  3. Paleopathology (U Wyoming) [Quicktime 3D pictures of bones by pathology]


Virtual Slideboxes

  1. Virtual Slidebox of Histology (U of Iowa) [virtual microscope, some annotation]
  2. Internet Atlas of Histology (UoIUC) [guided tours by organ system]
  3. Histology Learning System (BU) [photomicrographs with explanatory overlays]
  4. Histology Home Page (U Wisconsin) [photomicrographs with overlays]
  5. Epathologies "Histology" (St Joseph University) [photomicrographs]

Online Textbooks

  1. Interactive Histology Atlas (U of Oklahoma) [explanatory text, simultaneous hyperlinked images!]
  2. Loyola University Histology Tutorial (LUMEN) [virtual microscopy, narrative text]
  3. Microscopic Anatomy [description with accompanying slides]

Video Lessons

  1. Shotgun Histology [by John Minarcik; posted to Youtube]
  2. Bio-Alive Histology Videos


  1. Histological Staining Techniques from the University of Bristol [veterinary]
  2. Histotechniques Article from WebPath
  3. Special Stains in Histology from WebPath
  4. StainsFile - "The Internet Resource for Histotechnologists"
  5. PathologyOutlines Stains Directory

Anatomy & Physiology

Anatomy Resources

  1. Gray's Anatomy of the Human Body (Bartleby)
  2. e-Anatomy (Montpellier U) [interactive CT and MRI virtual imaging of entire body]
  3. GetBodySmart (McGrawHill) [animated human anatomy and physiology]
  4. "LUMEN Learn 'Em" Anatomy Atlas (Loyola) [atlas]
  5. Neuroscience Tutorial (Washington U) [neuroanatomy & neuroscience]
  6. Child Physiology (HSC) [child anatomy & physiology]
  7. Anatomia (UofT) [flash presentations of difficult anatomy]
  1. Eye Anatomy [commercial site with nice animation]


Physiology Resources

  1. Nucleus Medical Arts Medical Aminations [disease processes, anatomy, surgeries]
  2. Anatomy and Physiology I Animations (NHC) [biochemistry, genetics, cellular physiology, medical physiology]
  3. Anatomy and Physiology II Animations (NCH) [cellular physiology, medical physiology]
  4. Biology I Animations (NCH) [chemistry, biochemistry, genetics, proteomics, cellular physiology]
  5. Anatomy and Physiology Animations (this is a commercial site selling workout products, but the links seem good)
  6. Embryo Images Online [embryology with interactive pictures]
  7. Educational Games (by The Nobel Prize in Medicine) [blood typing, cell division, hearing, etc.]

Microscopes and Microscopy

  1. Molecular Expressions(tm) Microscopy Primer (FSU) [optics, physics, tutorials, animations]
  2. Microscopy University (Nikon) [tutorials; gallery; museum]
  3. Microbus [microscope parts, types, use, history, evaluation]
  4. Nobel foundation focus on microscopy [explanations, simulators]
  5. Center for In Vivo Microscopy (Duke) [MRI, CT, X-Ray, PET microscopy]
  6. Microscopy UK [intense amateur microscopy site w/ Micscape Magazine]

Optical Physics by Lipson (at amazon)

History of Pathology


  1. Wikipedia - history of pathology
  2. A History of Pathology at the Massachusetts General Hospital
  3. A history of pathology and laboratory medicine at Baylor University Medical Center (Baylor University Medical Center Proceedings)
  4. Surgical Pathology in the Era of the Civil War: The Remarkable Life and Accomplishments of Joseph Janvier Woodward, MD (Archives of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine)
  5. A Brief History of Head and Neck Pathology (Modern Pathology)


  1. Ackerknecht, Erwin. Rudolph Virchow: Doctor, statesman, anthropologist. 1st ed. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press; 1953.
  2. Long, Esmond. A History of Pathology. 1st ed. Baltimore; 1928.
  3. Long, Esmond. A History of American Pathology. Thomas; 1962.
  4. Malkin, Harold M. Out of the Mist: The Foundation of Modern Pathology and Medicine During the Nineteenth Century. 1st ed. Berkeley, California: Vesalius Books; 1993.
  5. Rosai, Juan, ed. Guiding the Surgeon's Hand: The History of American Surgical Pathology. American Registry of Pathology; 1997.

Other Pathology Resources

Pathology News & Blogs

  1. Upcoming conferences - at
  2. Digital Pathology Blog - news and analysis of progress in digital pathology
  3. Lab Soft News "An idea factory for pathology informatics and the clinical laboratory" (Pathology Education Consortium)
  4. - a blog about pathology and related issues and current events
  5. Oncopathology - a Canadian pathologist blogs about surgical pathology as it contributes to oncology
  6. Pathology Updates - "Your Source for Pathology News"
  7. PathDoc - "An Internet Pathology Resource"
  8. Google Pathology News
  9. Google Pathology News (filtering out most forensic-related news)

Pathology Forums

  1. College of American Pathologists (CAP) "Residents Online Community" - online forum for pathology residents
  2. Student Doctor Network (SDN) Pathology Forum - online forum for pathology residents

Pathology Informatics

  1. Association for Pathology Informatics
  2. The Pathology Information Exchange Home Page [UofMich, UofPitt]
  3. Center for Pathoogy Informatics at the University of Pittsburgh

Pathology Images

  1. Wikimedia Creative Commons (Search the Wikimedia Commons using Mayflower)
  2. Pathology and Lab Medicine Pool on Flickr
  3. PEIR Digital Library
  4. Creative Commons Search
  5. Health Education Assets Library (HEAL)
  6. PC Tumor Images - public domain (click on the letters)
  7. Images by Ed Uthman:
  1. Ed Uthman's Pathology Images
  2. Ed Uthman's Pathology Images on Flickr

Pathology for the General Public

  1. University of Michigan Video [explains surgical pathology and the history of their pathology department]


Machine Learning

  1. Machine Learning for Bioinformatics - lecture slides from the Max Plank Institute (2008)

Microarray Data Analysis

  1. Microarray Analysis - lecture slides and exercises using R from the course at MIT (2007)
  2. Analysis of Microarray Data - lecture slides from the course at MD Anderson Medical Centre (2007)
  3. Bioconductor Past Courses and Workshops - lecture slides and course materials for numerous microarray analysis courses

R (Freeware Statistical Analysis/Programming Package)

  1. The R Project for Statistical Computing - a widely-used package for statistics and microarray analysis
  2. RSeek - an R-specific search engine for help/packages/etc. 
  3. Bioconductor - a powerful R-based bioinformatics platform

Python (High-level Programming Language)

  1. Python Package Index (PyPI) [find extra python packages for added functionality]


  1. Probability and Statistics EBook at UCLA.

Internet Research

Journal Metrics

  1. Journal Citation Reports (ISI Web of Knowledge)

Searching for Pathology Articles

  1. Search Pubmed (only pathology journals) - just prepend your search terms in the search box after following this link
  2. Search Google Scholar (only pathology journals)


  1. Wikipedia - the collaborative encyclopedia that needs no introduction
  2. Wikiseek - dynamically sorts articles into categories
  3. WikiMindMap - visual mapping of related topics
  4. Mayflower - Wikimedia Commons image search engine


  1. OneLook - the quintessential dictionary metasearch
  2. National Cancer Institute (NCI) Dictionary (USA)

Open Access Pathology Journals

  1. The Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) (pathology journals)


About this website:

This site is intended to be a useful resource for pathologists, pathology residents, and medical students interested in pathology.  This site was created for my own use, and is thus not intended to be an exhaustive listing, but rather to catalog those websites in each category that I find most helpful. However, in case others might find my collection useful, I have published it above. I hope you find it useful as well, and please contact me with any suggestions or to notify me of dead links. 

Eric K Morgen, MD

Resident Physician in Anatomical Pathology

Dept. of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology

University of Toronto

Please e-mail me if any links are broken or if you have any sites to suggest.

by Eric Morgen, Copyright © 2008-2012